Back in June 2009, someone named Tom posted a great question about applying the Dauerwald concept in Minnesota. In a nutshell, the Dauerwald approach involves intensive management designed to maintain a high diversity of tree species and ages. This approach can be attractive to those interested in active management but less comfortable with more extensive harvests such as clearcuts or shelterwood treatments.
This month we feature a two-part video response to Tom’s question and the ensuing discussion from Tony D’Amato, silviculturist at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Forest Resources. Tony’s first video addresses the concept of natural disturbance-based silviculture. His second video addresses a somewhat related concept, of active management to restore late-successional structure. Tony discusses how ecological forestry can complement other approaches like production forestry and multiple use sustained yield forestry on the landscape.
Ecological forestry: Natural disturbance-based silviculture
- Minnesota DNR’s Native Plant Community Field Guides
- Natural disturbance and stand development principles for ecological forestry
Ecological forestry: Restoring late-successional forest structure
- Restoring Late-successional Forest Structure, by Tony D’Amato and Paul Catanzaro (PDF)
- More info and links on restoring late-successional and old growth characteristics from MassWoods.net.
How does (or doesn’t) ecological forestry fit into your woodland plans? Why or why not? Leave a comment below or add to the initial discussion begun by Tom.
MDA survey finds 59 St. Paul trees infested with emerald ash borer
A multi-agency survey found 59 trees infested with emerald ash borer in and around the St. Anthony Park neighborhood where the pest was first discovered in May. All 59 trees are within a half mile of the first infestation site. Crews have already removed the 59 trees. Read the recent news release.
Monitoring efforts using purple cardboard traps and “trap trees” is underway.
Homeowners are asked to join the effort by watching their ash trees for signs of infestation. These signs include:
- dieback of leaves in the upper third of the tree’s branches
- heavy woodpecker activity
- D-shaped exit holes in the bark
- S-shaped tunnels under the bark
- water shoots on the trunk
Think you might have it?
If you think you might have Emerald Ash Borer use his checklist(pdf) to determine if you should get in touch with an EAB First Detector.
Minnesota Department of Agriculture Quarantine
On May 15th, 2009 the quarantine (previously applied to Houston) added Ramsey and Hennepin counties to prevent the spread of Emerald Ash Borer to new areas through the movement of infested wood and tree parts. Besides applying to all ash tree parts, the regulations apply to all non-coniferous firewood. Read more about the quarantine(pdf).
Don’t remove your healthy ash trees
MDA reminds homeowners that it is not necessary to remove healthy ash trees. Homeowners with questions about disposing of ash tree material should contact their city forester for guidance. Improper disposal of infested ash material could accelerate the spread of EAB.
What does EAB mean for the woodland owner?
Should you try to harvest your ash as quickly as possible? How should you manage your forest? Should you just let nature take its course? There are no simple answers to such questions, but the Michigan State University Extension put together a helpful publication to help woodland owners prepare for EAB.
For more information
By Julie Miedtke, University of Minnesota Extension-Itasca County
Early in May, Grand Rapids High School Students and Woodland Advisors took to the woods to install a deer exclosure at the Forest History Center. Working side by side students and volunteers cleared vegetation, dug holes using post hole diggers, and by mid-afternoon the fence was raised.
Keith Matson, a man who wears many hats: US Forest Service-retired, Woodland Advisor, and Itasca County Private Woodland Committee, organized the activity and remarked “these students certainly had ample horse power for the job and we enjoyed getting to know them and hear their interests in forests, wildlife and being outdoors. We certainly hope to continue this partnership with these future landowners. This activity has been a good experience for everyone”. Other woodland advisors helped with the project including Jim Columbus, Floyd Hovarter, Roxy Knuttala and Ralph Olson.
The Forest History Center has several ancient Eastern white pines (Pinus strobus) scattered throughout the site. Many of these conifers are “super canopy trees” standing taller than any other trees in the area and you can find many of the reigning monarchs growing on the banks of the Mississippi River. The Woodland Stewardship Plan written by Dan Hertle-DNR –Forestry, indicated that the site was favorable for growing white pine and suggested the project.
The fence was installed in a very visible location along a primary trail leading down to the Mississippi River. The purpose of the fence was to prevent deer from browsing young white pine seedlings that have naturally seeded into the area. And the project will also demonstrate to folks how a growing deer population is impacting forest vegetation. Given the high deer population in the area, it is expected that there will be a noticeable difference in the shrubs and tress within a few years. Materials used for the fence were purchased locally.
Growing white pine
Landowners that are looking to increase the conifer component on their land can hand plant white pine seedlings—an obvious choice if your land doesn’t have any. Landowners that have white pine may enjoy working with Mother Nature. White pine will generally produce a good seed crop every three to five years with the seed capable of traveling 200-700 feet or more. Scarifying the soil prior to seed dispersal will create a seedbed for natural regeneration. Once established, white pine will continue to need care to ensure their growth and survival. Competing vegetation (grasses and shrubs) and management of the overstory keeping some shade on the site are two important considerations for young trees. While growing, white pine will need to be pruned to help reduce damage from white pine blister rust and help to improve the quality of the timber. Growing white pine is the preferred tree of choice for active folks that enjoy being out in the woods.
The giants and their tiny flowers
The scent of spring wafts into our nostrils and affirms spring is here. Is that quinte-scent-ial smell rising from below our knees or is it falling from the heavens? Maybe a little of both. High above our heads in the tops of trees flourish a multitude of flowers. This sounds a bit … well… flowery … but it is true. In the tops of our colossal statuesque canopy forming titans are sprightly little flowers fit for a pixy.
“…And the flowers and the trees…”The Birds and the Bees, Jewel Akens 1965
One of the hallmarks of spring is when the crab apples and other fruit trees are in bloom. In about the second week in May In the Longfellow neighborhood in south Minneapolis, many of the streets are lined with brightly colored and honey scented crab apple trees this time of year. Without going too far down the botany lingo path of gymnosperm, angiosperm, carpel, and sporophylls with fused margins, consider that in order for trees to reproduce (make more trees) they’ve got to make a seed. And before many trees, or any kind of plant, can make a seed it needs to make a flower. And that flower needs to be pollinated. The majority of flowers on trees are pollinated by the wind or by insects; a few are pollinated by hummingbirds.
The size, color and shape of a flower is linked to how it gets pollinated. Wind pollinated trees depend on the wind to move a pollen grain from a male flower to a female flower. It is most effective for them to put energy into making a lot of flowers, pollen, and eventually a lot of seeds versus making a big colorful flower. If a tree is trying to woo a specific insect to carry its pollen directly to another flower, it is a good use of plant energy to make a larger attractively colored flower. It is also worth the plant’s energy to make enough pollen so that the friendly little bug gets a meal in exchange for courier services. You can make a guess about how a flower is pollinated based on what the flower looks like.
Fresh cut flowers
By the time some of the more showy flowers bloom, like magnolias, crab apples and lilacs many of many less noticeable flowers have already bloomed in yards, in the woods and on boulevards. Many of these flowers come out before the leaves. One way to view and observe the more dainty specimens is to bring them into your home.
Prune off some approximately pencil thick branches off a tree in your yard. Low hanging branches or water sprouts growing from a previous pruning cut are fine candidates for harvest since they will potentially be pruned soon. You can display them, much like cut flowers from the florist, with water in a vase. Place your piece of spring in a location you will see often, like where you eat breakfast. American elm is a great tree to take a cutting from early in the spring. Watch the buds early in the spring and collect a cutting just after you notice something starting to emerge from the buds. The cutting on your table will develop and bloom at about the same rate as the flowers up in the tree’s canopy. This is a great way to watch up-close how the flowers develop and change in a short amount of time. Use a magnifying glass or hand lense to get an even better view.
Viewing tree flowers, especially the smaller ones, is not as easy as noticing large brightly colored flowers. It takes a bit more observation and focus but is rewarding. It can be hard to see the details on branches of large trees. Look for low hanging branches. Yards and natural parks are good places to find branches that haven’t been pruned up too high for viewing. One way to view details in the crown of a tree is to use binoculars. You can view from the ground or even from an upper story window in your house. Another use of the binoculars is to look through one of the lenses the wrong way to see the detail of a little flower up close. You need to have the object you are viewing almost touching the glass on the small end and your eye on the big end. The best way to notice when a tree is blooming or changing in some way is to look at trees that are part of your daily routine. Glance at the tree or shrub nearest to your front door when you get home. Check the tree at your bus stop when you arrive at work. Trees are always changing and can be enjoyed through watching these subtleties.
Seasonal changes in a plant, including blooming, is determined by a number of factors. One way plants regulate when they bloom is by measuring the length of the night. Plants are also impacted by temperature and other environment factors. Botanists use growing degree days(GDD) to predict when a plant will bloom. This system calculates blooming dates by measuring daily temperatures but variations in temperature from year to year make it difficult to put blooming times on a specific date on a calendar. See the table below for approximate times to look for selected tree flowers. If you are wondering about other species check out the resources below or simply keep a keen watch on your tree.
Enjoy discovering tree flowers. This is a fine activity to do on your own, but better yet share your excitement with a friend, neighbor, or family member.
Share your favorite tree flowers and when you saw them blooming in the comment section below.
- Arbor Day Foundation. Arborday.org Tree Guide. 2009. Arbor Day Foundation. 14 May 2009 <http://www.arborday.org/trees/treeGuide/index.cfm>.
- Minnesota Tree Care Advisors. Resources – Tree ID & Info. 2008. Minnesota Tree Care Advisors. 22 Apr 2009 <http://www.mntca.org/resources/reso_tree.html>.
- Michigan State University Extension. Ornamental Plants plus Version 3.0. 19 Jan 2008. Michigan State University Extension. 14 May 2009 <http://web1.msue.msu.edu/imp/modzz/masterzz.html>.
- Smith, Welby R.. Trees and shrubs of Minnesota : the complete guide to species identification. 1st. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2008. Print.
- Tekiela, Stan. Trees of Minnesota. 1st. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications, Inc, 2001. Print.
The Minnesota Department of Agriculture just launched a web-based tool to assist farmers and ag professionals regarding conservation programs and practices. Here is the announcement from Barbara Weisman below:
The Conservation Funding Guide is a one-stop, online tool Minnesota farmers and other landowners can use to learn about conservation practices, programs, and payments. It provides a wealth of information all in one place, complementing the advice available to landowners from ag & conservation professionals. It also makes a handy reference for professionals & policy makers.
For more information check out the Minnesota Conservation Funding Guide.
By Julie Miedtke, UMN Extension Itasca County
I often wonder what motivates people to work on their land. Sometimes a conversation with a friend or neighbor may spark an interest. People can be inspired by a motivational speaker, a book with glossy images or filled with facts. Recently I had a conversation with Oren and Andrea Danson and learned that they were inspired by a postcard from the Itasca Soil and Water Conservation District. The little postcard asked if they were interested in improving wildlife habitat and managing their land. The landowner survey card led to a conversation and a Woodland Stewardship Management Plan. In a recent conversation Oren said “Our Woodland Stewardship Management Plan has definitely influenced our lives.”
Oren grew up on the family farm south of Grand Rapids that was purchased by his father in the 1920’s. In 1974, Oren was able to purchased 40 acres from his Mom. At that time, the Danson’s were absentee landowners and the small field was used for hay production for a number of years. The land idled until the management plan was written in 1998.
In 2001, the Dansons harvested over mature Aspen and Balsam Fir working with a consulting forester. Reiger Logging harvested the timber that generated substantial income. In 2002, the land was enrolled in the Sustainable Forest Incentive Act (SFIA) which has helped ease the burden of property taxes.
Oren commented on the positive aspects of having a Woodland Stewardship Plan and the opportunity to network with natural resource professionals and that he has enjoyed learning from them. He shared his experience of working with the District Conservationist with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) about planting a couple of rows of trees in the field. He was then connected to Quintin Legler who helps folks with management activities.
Quintin and Oren spent time walking the land and talking about planting trees. Oren shared his conversation with Quintin stating “Why should I plant trees? I am sixty four years old!! Quintin simply told me that it was a chance for me to leave my legacy and because taking care of your land is the right thing to do. That little conversation hit the nail right on the head for me.”
In 2004 the entire field was machine planted with 14,000 Norway Pine. The seedlings were monitored and many were lost during recent droughts and the field was replanted twice. Oren eliminated competing grass, investing in a three wheeler to literally run up and down the rows applying a herbicide.
The Danson’s enjoy working with their hands. Andrea creates fanciful quilts and artful handwork, and Oren is a woodworker. Oren has crafted many projects with wood harvested from his parents land that has been sawn, planed to create heirlooms for his children and grand children. Oren said, “That way the kids can have a piece of the land even if they are living in distant places.”
Reprinted with permission from the January 2009 Itasca Woodlands newsletter. To learn more about the Itasca Woodlands Committee, which publishes the newsletter, call Sheila at (218) 327-7486.
By Philip Potyondy, University of Minnesota Extension
I recently visited the Ulschmid family woodland outside of Detroit Lakes, MN. I brought a little video camera and had a conversation with Tom and Scott Ulschmid and Minnesota DNR forester Kent Wolf. We talked about thinning red pine and making management desicions in a woodland.
This is MyMinnesotaWoods’ first in a series of woodland visits. It was a chilly day and my first time making a video. Watch the video to learn why many landowners choose to thin their red pine plantations, how to know when it’s time to thin, and where to find help.
Thinking about thinning your red pine? We suggest you start with our page on Thinning and Timber Stand Improvement, then pick up the phone to find a professional forester who can help. Here are two great places to start: