In Minnesota, native blueberries thrive on acidic soils (pH 4.0 to 5.0) that are low in fertility. Blueberries are frequently found on burned-over areas from recent wildfires, areas that have been logged or sites with ledge rock or rock outcrops. Blueberries can also be found growing along the edge of bogs.
Wild blueberry plants are readily established from seed. As they grow, plants send out underground stems, or rhizomes, that grow on top of the ground. Roots develop along the rhizome and produce new stems/plants. By the end of the first year, buds are formed and over winter on the plant. The second year is dedicated to berry production.
Full sun is an essential requirement for berry production. Plants will tolerate some shade, but overtopping vegetation limits blossoms and fruit production.
Lessons in Integrated Management:
Wild blueberries and Woodlands
An excellent example of integrating blueberry production into woodland management comes from experienced foresters. In northern Itasca County, a stand of mature jack pine was harvested in 1978. The landing area, about 1.5 acres in size was designated as a permanent wildlife opening. A year later during a field inspection, the forester noticed blueberry plants that had naturally seeded into the site—a definite benefit to wildlife. The decision was made to manage the wildlife opening for berry production.
The site has been periodically mowed to the height of about 12 inches in 1980’s and 1995. Overtime, willow and hazel began to encroach into the site, overtopping the blueberry plants, and vegetation treatments have been timed to not interfere with harvesting. The managing forester is quick to note that this blueberry site is a gem and protected by silence by local families who return each year to harvest berries.
Lucille Lauer graduated from the University of Minnesota with a degree in horticulture in the 1980s. While on campus, Lucille was able to have direct conversations with hort researchers Dr. David Wildung and Dr. Jim Luby while they were developing new cultivated varieties of blueberry plants. Lucille was excited about the idea and looked for an opportunity to put her knowledge and skills into practice. After college, Lucille’s family returned to Grand Rapids living on eighty acres of land. Working with her family, Lucille developed and planted four to blueberries, and has established a thriving ‘u-pick’ business called Blueberry Meadows. The business was started on a shoestring and has provided gainful employment for extended family and neighbors. For Lucille, Blueberry Meadows is really about quality of life with no traffic or commute, healthy outdoor work and interactions with friends, family and neighbors who come and pick berries!
The most recent patch was established in 2006, planting two acres with Chippewa and North Blue varieties. The meadow was fenced to keep deer from depredating the site that was cost-shared through DNR. During the spring of 2010, Lucille obtained funding through the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) through the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and installed a 30x 72 foot high tunnel was installed over a few rows of blueberry plants. The high tunnel will benefit the plants during cold, wet springtime weather AND to give her business an edge by producing berries earlier.
For more information:
Agroforestry integrates forestry technologies into agricultural practices. Through the incorporation of woody shrubs and trees into crop and animal production, agroforestry aims to improve production, protect soil and water resources, diversify income and contribute to sustainable land management. Some common agroforestry practices include alley cropping, windbreaks, riparian buffers and silvopasture but may also be broadened to include any practice, save forestry, that utilizes trees and woody shrubs in a managed production system.
The material presented on this page provides an introduction to different agroforestry practices and the ways in which agroforestry can be used in agriculture, communities and mix-used areas. A list of demonstration sites in Minnesota and financial/ technical assistance programs is also provided.
Photo courtesy USDA NRCS
The Center for Integrated Natural Resources and Agricultural Management (CINRAM) works closely with University of Minnesota Forest Resource Extension office on agroforestry issues. Visit CINRAM’s website for more information on their research and agroforestry work.
Please contact the Forest Resource Extension office with any agroforestry related questions. Phone: (612) 624-3020. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. In addition, Diomy Zamora, Regional Extension Educator based in Brainerd, has expertise in agroforestry, hybrid poplar and renewable energy and is available for consultation. Email: email@example.com. Phone: 218-828-2332
A guide to agroforestry resources and demonstration sites: Agroforestry in Minnesota-University of Minnesota
An introduction to agroforestry practices in Minnesota:Discovering Profits in Unlikely Places: Agroforestry Opportunities for Added Income-University of Minnesota
By John Latimer, KAXE Radio, Grand Rapids
migrate or hibernate or if they do migrate they come here to spend the
winter in balmy northern Minnesota. For some like the robins it is a gamble
for if they do survive they have their pick of the territories in the
spring. That is a big “if” however because they can easily get trapped and
perish before they can travel far enough south to find food.
waxwings are an example of a species that migrates to the area to spend the
winter. The robin and the waxwings survive the winter eating fruit and by
joining this flock the robin markedly increased its ability to locate food.Cardinals do not migrate. They are expanding their range ever farther north.
The note from 1988 was the first I had seen in the area. Now there are
regular sightings in the Grand Rapids area. In the spring and summer when
they are singing they can be heard all along the Mississippi river in town.
Many people have reported seeing them at their feeders throughout the year.
black oil sunflower seeds and a place to hide when they are not eating. A
few balsam or spruce near the feeder will give them the shelter they seek.
Cardinals often visit the feeder just around sunrise and again just before
sunset. What they do the rest of the day remains a mystery.Chickadees are year around residents wherever they are found. They are
inquisitive and convivial guests at nearly all feeders. There is some
evidence that some chickadees do migrate, though not always in a north south
direction. Whatever the case there is almost always a flock near every
feeder. These flocks assemble shortly after the young birds are fledged in
mid-summer. They remain together on a territory throughout the winter. Often
you can hear them when they contact another flock as much singing will
occur. The territories tend to be 10 to 20 acres in size and are defended by
the entire flock.
In late December and early January the dominant males will begin to sing a
new song. It is a lovely two note “fee bee”. When you hear this it is a sign
that the males are starting to choose a mate and the flock will be breaking
up soon. Often two or more males within a flock will sing at the same time.
This can signal a struggle for territory.
control the area. They seldom sing this fee bee song inside of ten yards of
one another. Once they have closed to that range a much quieter battle
ensues. The songs are different and may be accompanied by chases. Sometimes
the birds will appear to stop the skirmish to feed a bit. The real struggle
for territory occurs as they approach their nest building phase in April. In
the meantime watch and listen as the chickadees surround us with their
exuberant good cheer through the depths of winter.
John Latimer is well known throughout northern Minnesota for his phenology work. He appears weekly on KAXE radio in Grand Rapids, and audio and twitter archives are available here. His work is a frequent feature on MyMinnesotaWoods. This article also appeared in the Duluth Senior Reporter. It is printed with the author’s permission.
On November 20, 2009, a postcard was mailed to owners of 20+ acres of woodland in Itasca County. If you’ve just received a postcard and are looking for more information, you’ve come to the right place.
Naturally, the first step is to develop a Woodland Stewardship Management Plan for your land. A Woodland Stewardship Management Plan is an overview of your property developed with your goals for your land. A Woodland Stewardship Management Plan may qualify you for cost-share funds that can reduce costs for projects like tree planting. There is a fee for the plan, and there may be a delay due to high demand. Learn more about recent Woodland Stewardship Plan policy changes here.
Woodland Stewardship Plan Writers Serving Itasca County:
Currently there are two MN-DNR Forestry offices that provide services in Itasca County (See Map). Due to a reduction in funding, the DNR has recently made changes in its program and will be moving to a fee for service based program.
- Deer River Area:
1201 Hwy. 2
Grand Rapids, MN 55744
- Hibbing Area:
7979 Hwy. 37,
Eveleth, MN 55743
2. Itasca Soil and Water Conservation District
- 1889 East Hwy. 2
Grand Rapids, MN 55744
3. The Minnesota Association of Consulting Foresters
- PO Box 1171
Bemidji, MN 56619-1171
Current Property Tax Programs for Qualifying Landowners in Itasca County
1. 2c Managed Forest Land Tax Classification:
This is a new tax classification for vacant wooded land. The class rate is 0.65%, 35% lower than the class rate for 2b Timberland. Enrollment requires a registered Woodland Stewardship Management Plan. Landowners must complete the application form CR-2c MFL and provide it to the county assessor to verify that the property qualifies for this program. Learn more about the 2c Managed Forest Lands tax class.
- Itasca County Assessor’s Office
123 NE Fourth Street
Grand Rapids, MN 55744
2. Sustainable Forest Incentive Act
This program, administered by the MN Department of Revenue, provides woodland owners with an annual incentive payment. This program requires filing a covenant with the county recorders office. You’ll need the legal description of your property, a copy of the woodland stewardship plan map and parcel identification numbers (PID). Be sure to exclude any area that you might develop in the future. For complete details, read the SFIA Fact Sheet. Allow the county recorder two to three months to process your request.
- Itasca County Recorder’s Office
123 NE Fourth Street
Grand Rapids, MN 55744
To learn more:
- Publication: Property Tax Relief for Forest Landowners by Mel Baughman and Mike Reichenbach (PDF). This publication provides a detailed overview of SFIA, 2c Managed Forest Land, and the Rural Preserves program.
- Workshop: Tax Relief and Incentive Payments for Woodland Owners
Tuesday, December 1, 2009 from 6:00- p.m. to 8:00 p.m. in Grand Rapids. Get all the details here or call Julie Miedtke at (218) 327-7486.
Call the Itasca County Woodland Owner’s Answerline 218-327-2815
By Gary Michael, MN DNR – Division of Forestry
The Department of Natural Resource Division of Forestry’s Forest Stewardship Program (FSP) is undertaking a major shift in how it operates. For decades the FSP has been delivering free forest management plans to non-industrial private forest landowners. A recent change in funding will require the FSP to be a more self sufficient program. To achieve greater self sufficiency, the FSP is moving to a fee for service based program.
Stewardship eligible lands are any forestland with existing tree cover and other woody vegetation or lands suitable, and likely, for growing trees and other woody vegetation or land which has significant effect (e.g., streams within a wooded type, wetlands, fields to be planted for wildlife or timber, etc.) on the forested acres.
The minimum acreage necessary to receive a stewardship plan is twenty acres of tree or other woody vegetation after the plan has been implemented. Exemptions may be applied for on either a county or individual basis.
A couple of examples to help clarify the twenty-acre minimum are as follows:
- If a landowner owns 40 total acres with only 11 acres of woodland, and he or she is interested in planting 9 more acres of trees, they would be eligible to receive a Stewardship Plan and would be eligible for cost share assistance.
- If a landowner owns 18 acres total, and all the acres are wooded, he or she would need an exemption to receive a Stewardship Plan, as they could not meet the minimum 20 wooded acre criteria.
- If a landowner has 30 total acres with only 11 acres of woodland and the landowner does not have any interest in establishing additional acres of trees or other woody vegetation, he or she would not be eligible to receive a plan unless an exemption has been granted
The fee will be a minimum of $230 for a 20 acre plan and a maximum of $1,000 for all plans over 260 acres (up to 1,000 acres). The plan writing fee will be rounded to the nearest whole dollar. All stewardship plan requests over 1,000 acres should be turned over to a FSP partner (consultant forester) so that they can negotiate with the landowner a fee for service (cash plan).
Formula to calculate Stewardship Plan fees:
Formula to calculate the fee for a new or revising an outdated stewardship plan [(stewardship acres – 20 acres)*$3.21)+$230 = plan writing fee
A few examples:
43 acre stewardship plan: [(43 acres – 20 acres)*$3.21] + $230 = $304
178 acre stewardship plan: [(178 acres – 20 acres)*$3.21] + $230 = $737
271 acre stewardship plan: This request is over 260 acres, so the cost is $1,000
Many times only a portion of the land is eligible for a stewardship plan. The fee only reflects the acres included in the plan. The forester will determine the plan acres. All plans will need to be registered with the DNR Division of Forestry.
This month’s update from MyMinnesotaWoods.org is now available.
This month’s features:
- Response: Dauerwald, ecological forestry, and late-successional structure
- North Central Forest Management Guides: Bottomland hardwoods
- John Latimer’s Northern Minnesota phenology report
- Meet a Minnesota Logger: Tom Kruschek
- Protecting tree seedlings from deer
- Featured link: Tree ID resources from MNTCA.org
- And, as always, discussion board, upcoming events, news, poem of the month, and a quiz.
Back in June 2009, someone named Tom posted a great question about applying the Dauerwald concept in Minnesota. In a nutshell, the Dauerwald approach involves intensive management designed to maintain a high diversity of tree species and ages. This approach can be attractive to those interested in active management but less comfortable with more extensive harvests such as clearcuts or shelterwood treatments.
This month we feature a two-part video response to Tom’s question and the ensuing discussion from Tony D’Amato, silviculturist at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Forest Resources. Tony’s first video addresses the concept of natural disturbance-based silviculture. His second video addresses a somewhat related concept, of active management to restore late-successional structure. Tony discusses how ecological forestry can complement other approaches like production forestry and multiple use sustained yield forestry on the landscape.
Ecological forestry: Natural disturbance-based silviculture
- Minnesota DNR’s Native Plant Community Field Guides
- Natural disturbance and stand development principles for ecological forestry
Ecological forestry: Restoring late-successional forest structure
- Restoring Late-successional Forest Structure, by Tony D’Amato and Paul Catanzaro (PDF)
- More info and links on restoring late-successional and old growth characteristics from MassWoods.net.
How does (or doesn’t) ecological forestry fit into your woodland plans? Why or why not? Leave a comment below or add to the initial discussion begun by Tom.